Analysis of the requirements of the hottest food t

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Analysis of the requirements of food technology on packaging containers (Part 1)

food is the most important thing for the people. The food industry is the first pillar industry of the industrial sector in both developed countries and rising China. The output value of China's food industry was 134.2 billion yuan in 1988 and 590 billion yuan in 1998. It took the lead in achieving the goal of quadrupling the output value in China's industrial sectors. In 2003, the output value of the food industry reached 1239 billion yuan, including 600 billion yuan in the catering industry, The total output value of the food industry has reached 1.8 trillion yuan, ranking first in China's industrial sector for eight consecutive years

The rapid development of food industry has promoted the development of agriculture and aquaculture in China. The key to the deep processing of agricultural products is to develop the food industry. The development of food industry plays a vital role in improving farmers' income, adjusting agricultural industrial structure and rural surplus labor force. At the same time, it promotes China's packaging industry, machinery industry and transportation industry

the 54 year development process of China's food industry can be roughly divided into three stages:

the temperature range of the rapid temperature change experimental box is - 55 ~ + 80 ℃

in the first stage, there is a shortage economy. Food is quantitative and invoice proof. As long as the requirements for food meet the requirements of sugar, flour and oil, it is a good food, and the packaging is mainly paper, paper bags and glass bottles

the second stage of food and clothing Economy: food is dazzling, rich and diverse, and the packaging is diversified, including paper, glass bottles, plastic

the third stage of economic transformation: the people of the whole country are transforming from a well-off society to a well-off society. They have higher requirements for food, which is delicious, convenient, functional and safe

with the continuous improvement of people's living standards and the high alignment of the scribed line on the buffer valve handle, the requirements for food quality are also higher and higher, resulting in more and more people concerned about food safety. Food safety involves the whole production and processing chain of planting, breeding, harvesting, slaughtering, processing, packaging, transportation, etc. here, we focus on the requirements of food processing technology for packaging containers

i. grain and oil processing

China produces about 430 million tons of grain, 176 million tons of rice, 90 million tons of wheat, 130 million tons of corn, 17 million tons of soybeans, 15 million tons of peanuts, 11.5 million tons of rapeseed, 9 million tons of cotton seeds, and 2 million tons of sunflower seeds every year

in grain and oil processing, it is mainly mould proof and oxidation proof. Grain and oil are seeds of plants, which have life and can germinate and deteriorate under a certain temperature and humidity. Because the seeds contain starch, protein, fat, fiber, etc., these substances are inadvertently stored and processed. Protein and starch can become moldy and produce aflatoxin, Fusarium oxysporin, fat, etc., which are harmful to human body, and produce odorous substances harmful to human body, Therefore, the moisture content must be less than 14% in the storage process of grain and oil, and the processing process should avoid high temperature. The processed grain and oil products should be packaged to ensure the quality of grain and oil

raw materials for grain and oil processing: among the packaging materials of barley, wheat, corn, soybeans, peanuts, etc., gunny bags were used before, and then snake skin bags (plastic bags) were changed. However, these packaging materials are not ideal for moisture-proof performance. Only snake skin bags are lined with plastic film, which blocks the air and humidity, and plays a role in mildew prevention and oxidation resistance. For the packaging of grain and oil raw materials, tens of billions of plastic woven bags lined with plastic film are needed

products of grain and oil processing: starch 2.6 million tons/year, instant noodles 42.2 billion bags/year, flour 60million tons/year, cooking oil 12 billion barrels/year. Most of these packaging containers are now plastic. Instant noodles are fried foods, and each kilogram of instant noodles uses 4 liang of oil. A large amount of oil is distributed on the noodles, even cup noodles, bowl noodles, and bag noodles. The author of the paper 1. Amir Ameri, an assistant professor at the school of mechanical and materials engineering at Washington State University, said that there are conditions that provide conditions for the oxidation of oil. How to reduce the existence of air and block the entry of air still needs to be improved from the process and packaging. The vast majority of cooking oil is now packaged with polyester PET, which seems to be genuine because it is transparent. In fact, there are a large number of unsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oil, which will produce polymerization reaction under the action of sunlight and ultraviolet rays. The resin like substances generated are toxic substances. How to improve the existing packaged oil drums needs further discussion

ⅱ. Dairy products

a cup of milk can strengthen a nation. The output of dairy products in China is increasing year by year and developing rapidly. In 2002, the output of milk powder was 1.4 million tons and that of liquid milk was 5.29 million tons, but the per capita output was less than 10kg, compared with 100kg per capita in the world; Compared with 300kg per capita in developed countries, China's dairy industry has great development potential

dairy products in the market are mainly milk powder, fresh milk, yogurt, milk drinks, ice cream, etc. Its packaging: paper plastic, aluminum plastic, paper aluminum plastic, plastic. Dairy is a substance with rich nutrition and the best culture agent for bacteria and pathogenic bacteria. It is the key to keep fresh and sterilize with good quality in the process of dairy processing. Now dairy factories generally use 135 ℃ high temperature instantaneous sterilization. This process has a high degree of continuity in production, but it destroys some good components of dairy products. Experts propose to adopt normal temperature pasteurization method to protect the quality of dairy products. The technological differences between the two sterilization methods are: the former can be completed in a few seconds at high temperature, which is convenient for continuous packaging; The latter requires packaging first and then sterilization. The sterilization process takes a long time, usually more than 40 minutes, but the quality of dairy products is guaranteed and the flavor is good. Different sterilization methods have different requirements for sterile packaging materials of dairy products. At present, the packaging of fresh milk and yogurt in the market is mostly paper aluminum plastic multi-layer composite packaging, which meets the sterility standard, but this material may not decompose for a hundred years, causing secondary pollution. The packaging of dairy products should not only achieve sterility, but also prevent and control secondary pollution, which is an important topic that needs to be solved urgently

Ⅲ. Beverage wine

China has a civilization history of 5000 years, and wine has a history of thousands of years in China. In 2003, China's liquor output: 2.55 million tons of Baijiu, 2.02 million tons of edible alcohol, 250000 tons of wine and 23.86 million tons of beer. The vast majority of its packaging containers are glass, which has the advantages of transparency and good-looking, does not react with the contents, is barrier to air, and can be recycled. Its disadvantages: bulky, inconvenient transportation, fragile. Take beer as an example. Beer uses barley and rice as raw materials to brew a beverage containing 2-5% alcohol and a variety of amino acids and CO: gases. Beer, also known as liquid bread, is favored by consumers, and its output is still on the rise. So far, China's beer production ranks first in the world. 24million tons of beer every year makes transportation and carrying inconvenient, and there are bottle explosions that hurt people. If beer bottles can also be carried as easily and safely as beverages, this is a great news for consumers. If beer bottles are changed into polyester bottles for beverages, beer can be carried and transported easily and safely. The consumption of this polyester beer bottle will be 30 billion to 40 billion per year. This will be a major challenge for the packaging industry

Ⅳ beverages

the development of beverages in China is also amazing. The output was only 300000 tons in 1982 and 20.25 million tons in 2002. The sales revenue was 55.2 billion yuan and the total profit was 3.97 billion yuan. Among them:

beverage production share: Bottled drinking water 39%, carbonated beverages 30%, fruit and vegetable juice beverages 11%, other 20%

beverage sales revenue market share: carbonated beverages 35%, fruit and vegetable juice beverages 14%, tea beverages 13%, bottled water 8%, other 30%

beverage industry profit segmentation: carbonated beverages 40%, tea beverages 19%, fruit and vegetable juice beverages 10%, bottled water 2%, Other 29%

the above data show that China's bottled water output is the highest and the profit is the lowest. The tea beverage with the highest profit is the emerging tea beverage. In 2003, China's beverage output was 23.74 million tons

9.56 million tons of bottled water, including 4.02 million tons of barreled water and 5.54 million tons of bottled water. Some of the barreled water is made of PVC and pet barrels. PVC barreled containers have the problem of chloride ions, which has been debated in the scientific community. Pet barrels have the problem of sterilization during recycling and reuse

6.66 million tons of carbonated beverages to improve the layout of ports in the province; Speed up the construction of the West Ring high-speed railway. Most of them use portable pet bottles, and some use two-piece cans (aluminum)

5million tons of tea drinks. The development speed is the fastest. Because tea drinks are neutral drinks, they need to be sterilized at 85 ℃ - 90 ℃. This has special requirements for PET bottles. There are many components of tea, especially light sensitive substances. Tea browning occurs under sunlight, which is a problem that needs to be solved by tea beverage packaging materials at present

(to be continued)

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