Analysis of the reference architecture model of th

2022-08-11
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Analysis of the reference architecture model of industry 4.0

Abstract: the German Committee for standardization of electrotechnics, electronics and information technology (dke) carried out the top-level design for the standardization of industry 4.0 in Germany, and published the reference architecture model of industry 4.0, setting a standard for the further development of industry 4.0

about German industry 4.0, more and more people are talking and writing. But for most listeners and readers, it is still a vague concept, and there is little understanding of the specific methodology. The German Committee for standardization of electrotechnics, electronics and information technology (dke) said that industry 4 in Germany is an ideal test equipment for scientific research institutions, colleges and universities, industrial and mining enterprises, technical supervision, commodity inspection and arbitration departments 0 standardization work carried out top-level design, and published the reference architecture model of industry 4.0, setting standards for the further development of industry 4.0

digital factory industry 4.0 evolved from digital factory. The research of digital factory began more than ten years ago. The original idea is to use electronic description instead of paper documents, and use it in software tools for electronic wiring and installation, so as to facilitate integration and reduce engineering costs. With the development of information technology and database technology, the concept and function of digital factory have been greatly expanded. The definition given by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) vocabulary is that a digital factory is an integrated network of digital models, methods and tools (including simulation and 3D virtual reality visualization), which are integrated through continuous and uninterrupted data management. Based on the relevant data of the whole product life cycle, it simulates, evaluates and optimizes the whole production process in the computer virtual environment, and further extends to the whole product life cycle

the conceptual model of the digital factory is divided into three levels. The bottom level is the physical layer containing product components (such as car lights, engines, tires, etc.) and factory production resources (such as sensors, controllers, actuators, etc.). The second layer is the virtual layer, which semantically describes the physical entities of the physical layer, converts them into "mirror" data that can be parsed by the computer, and establishes the connection between the digital product resource library and the digital factory resource library. The third layer is the tool/application layer involving the whole product life cycle process, including design, simulation, engineering application, asset management, logistics and other links. The greatest contribution of the concept of digital factory is to realize virtual (design and simulation) to reality (resource allocation and production). By connecting product components and production systems, user requirements and product design are input into the resource base through semantic description, and then transmitted to the production factor resource base. Manufacturing information can also be fed back to the product resource base, thus bridging the "gap" between product design and product manufacturing. Furthermore, it realizes the overall planning and optimization of various resources in the production process, reduces the design time while improving the quality, and accelerates the product development cycle

schematic diagram of the concept of digital factory as one of the most important international standards supporting industry 4.0, digital factory is an important topic of iec/tc65 (industrial process measurement, control and Automation). In June, 2011, iec/tc65 established wg16 "digital factory" working group. International Automation enterprises such as Siemens, Schneider Electric, Rockwell Automation, Yokogawa and other research institutions, as well as China's Institute of integrated technology and economics of machinery industry instruments, participated in the formulation of iec/tr 62794: 2012 digital factory standard. In order to better guide domestic enterprises to carry out the construction of digital factories, the national industrial process measurement, control and automation Standardization Committee (sac/tc124) organized relevant domestic units to convert the standard into China's national standard gb/z "reference model for industrial process measurement, control and automation production facilities (Digital Factory)" (issued in December 2015). 3 industry 4.03.1 core features of industry 4.0 the core of industry 4.0 lies in the comprehensive cross penetration of industry, products and services, which is realized by means of software and by networking products and services on the Internet and other networks. Industry 4.0 focuses on two aspects: product development and production process. In the implementation proposal of German industry 4.0 strategic plan, three core features of industry 4.0 are further proposed:

● vertical integration of flexible and reconfigurable networked manufacturing systems within enterprises, integrating automation and it systems at different levels (such as sensors and actuators, control, production management, manufacturing execution, enterprise planning and other different levels), and emphasizing the integration of production information flow, including orders, production scheduling Downward transmission of program code, work order, process and control parameters, as well as upward transmission of working conditions, equipment status, measurement parameters and other information at the production site

● realize horizontal integration between enterprises through value chain and network, integrate IT systems of various manufacturing stages and business plans, and emphasize the integration of product value flow (value-added process), including the configuration of materials, energy and information within a company (such as raw material logistics, production process, product outbound logistics, marketing, etc.), as well as the configuration between different companies (forming value network)

● full life cycle management and end-to-end system engineering, realize user participation in design (personalization) by integrating cad/cam/capp, PLM, ERP, SCM, CRM, MES and other software/systems, and better integrate user needs with production and manufacturing through virtual design, virtual evaluation and virtual manufacturing. It also involves the whole life cycle from the product to the maintenance service, and feeds back the user's opinions to the front-end design stage at any time, so as to dynamically improve the product quality

these three integrations actually point out the technical direction of realizing industry 4.0. 3.2 rami 4.0 model technology is in the forefront, and standardization takes the lead. In 2014, the German Committee for standardization of electrotechnics, electronics and information technology (dke) released the first version of the road map of industrial 4.0 standardization in Germany, which carried out the top-level design of industrial 4.0 standardization in Germany, and published the industrial 4.0 reference architecture model in 2015

industry 4.0 reference architecture model (rami 4.0) rami 4.0 shows all the key elements involved in industry 4.0 with a three-dimensional model, which can identify the role of existing standards in industry 4.0 and the gaps and deficiencies of existing standards. Industry 4.0 focuses on the whole process of product development and production. The first dimension (vertical axis) of the rami 4.0 model borrows the concept of layering commonly used in ICT. Similar to the famous ISO OSI seven layer model, each layer implements relatively independent functions. At the same time, the lower layer provides interfaces for the upper layer, and the upper layer uses the services of the lower layer. The main functions of each layer from bottom to top are:

● asset layer + integration layer: digital (virtual) represents various assets of the real world (physical components/hardware/software/files, etc.)

● communication layer: realize standardized communication protocol and data and file transmission

● information layer: including relevant data

● function layer: formalize and define necessary functions

● business layer: map relevant business processes

therefore, the modeling and implementation of industry 4.0 can be realized from different perspectives at all levels. The second dimension of Rami 4.0 model (left horizontal axis) describes the whole life cycle and its related value chain. The reference standard of this dimension is IEC 62890 industrial process measurement control and automation system and product life cycle management. The process here refers to the production process. The complete life cycle starts from planning, to design, simulation, manufacturing, to sales and service

rami 4.0 model further divides the life cycle into two stages: prototype development (type) and product production (instance), so as to emphasize that different stages have different priorities. The type stage, from initial design to finalization, also includes various tests and verifications. In the instance stage, large-scale and industrialized production of products is carried out, and each product is an instance of a prototype (type). In industry 4.0, the type stage and the instance stage form a closed loop. For example, in the sales stage, the product improvement information is fed back to the manufacturer to correct the prototype, and then the new model is released and new products are produced. This brings great benefits to the upgrading and improvement of products

on the other hand, purchase, order, assembly, logistics, maintenance, suppliers and customers are closely related. For example, use logistics data in the assembly process, organize internal logistics according to the uncompleted order, the purchasing department checks the inventory in real time and understands the supply of parts at any time, and the customer knows the whole production process of the ordered products. This will also provide great potential for improvement. Therefore, the life cycle must be considered together with its value-added process, which is not limited to a single factory, but extended to all factories and partners involved, from engineering design to component suppliers to final customers

the third dimension (right horizontal axis) of Rami 4.0 model describes the functional classification of industry 4.0 in different production environments, which is consistent with the levels specified in IEC 62264 enterprise control system integration (ISA S95) and IEC 61512 batch control (ISA S88). Further, since industry 4.0 not only focuses on the factories, workshops and machines that produce products, but also on the product itself and the cross enterprise collaboration outside the factory, it adds a "product" layer at the bottom and an "interconnected world" layer at the top of the factory

rami 4.0 model combines the whole life cycle and value chain with the hierarchical structure of industry 4.0, providing the greatest flexibility for describing and realizing industry 4.0. 3.3 standard mapping of Rami 4.0 model the purpose of Rami 4.0 model is to identify the existing standards and standard gaps acting on industry 4.0, and select appropriate solutions. Figure 3 shows the mapping of existing international standards for the rami 4.0 model. Figure 3 rami 4.0 standard mapping figure the existing international standards of industry 4.0 can include digital factory, safety and security, energy efficiency, system integration, fieldbus and other technical fields, mainly from iec/tc65, but also from iec/tc3, iso/tc184, IEC/tc17b, iso/iec JTC1, iec/tc44 and other technical committees. In addition, it also involves ecl@ss And other technical organizations. To this end, Germany recently sorted out the existing important standards of industry 4.0

iec and ISO Working Group on industry 4.0, in addition to iec/tc65/wg16 digital factory working group, iec/smb (Standards Authority) established SG8 "industry 4.0/intelligent manufacturing" strategic working group in August 2014 to carry out research on intelligent manufacturing standard system; In October 2014, iec/msb (market strategy Bureau) launched the white paper project of "future factory" to carry out research on market demand, technology development and long-term planning of intelligent manufacturing. The white paper has been formulated and officially released; In 2015, iso/tmb (Technology Administration Bureau) established the strategic advisory group of "industry 4.0/intelligent manufacturing" to carry out the strategic research of industry 4.0 standard. In addition, as the main position of international standardization of industry 4.0/intelligent manufacturing, in February 2016, iec/tc65 established two special working groups, "intelligent manufacturing information model" and "intelligent manufacturing framework and system architecture", to comprehensively support the work related to intelligent manufacturing. Relevant experts in China have participated in the above work. 4 thinking about China's intelligent manufacturing technology system in the face of the "Reindustrialization" strategy implemented by European and American developed countries, and the situation that China's manufacturing industry is facing many serious problems, the State Council issued the first ten-year action outline of China's manufacturing power strategy "made in China 2025" on March 19, 2015, aiming to seize technological development

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